While helpful to those challenged by this disability, such widespread recognition creates the possibility of improper diagnosis and inappropriate treatment.
Other aspects, such as atypical eating, are also common but are not essential for diagnosis. Noted autistic Temple Grandin described her inability to understand the social communication of neurotypicalsor people with normal neural developmentas leaving her feeling "like an anthropologist on Mars".
Autistic infants show less attention to social stimuli, smile and look at others less often, and respond less to their own name. Autistic toddlers differ more strikingly from social norms ; for example, they have less eye contact and turn-takingand do not have the ability to use simple movements to express themselves, such as pointing at things.
However, they do form attachments to their primary caregivers. Making and maintaining friendships often proves to be difficult for those with autism. For them, the quality of friendships, not the number of friends, predicts how lonely they feel.
Functional friendships, such as those resulting in invitations to parties, may affect the quality of life more deeply. The limited data suggest that, in children with intellectual disability, autism is associated with aggression, destruction of property, and tantrums. In the second and third years, children with autism have less frequent and less diverse babbling, consonants, words, and word combinations; their gestures are less often integrated with words.
Both autistic groups performed worse than controls at complex language tasks such as figurative language, comprehension and inference.
As people are often sized up initially from their basic language skills, these studies suggest that people speaking to autistic individuals are more likely to overestimate what their audience comprehends.
Repetitive movements, such as hand flapping, head rolling, or body rocking. Time-consuming behaviors intended to reduce anxiety that an individual feels compelled to perform repeatedly or according to rigid rules, such as placing objects in a specific order, checking things, or hand washing.
Resistance to change; for example, insisting that the furniture not be moved or refusing to be interrupted. Unvarying pattern of daily activities, such as an unchanging menu or a dressing ritual. This is closely associated with sameness and an independent validation has suggested combining the two factors.
Interests or fixations that are abnormal in theme or intensity of focus, such as preoccupation with a single television program, toy, or game. Behaviors such as eye-poking, skin-pickinghand-biting and head-banging.
Autistic individuals may have symptoms that are independent of the diagnosis, but that can affect the individual or the family. Selectivity is the most common problem, although eating rituals and food refusal also occur;  this does not appear to result in malnutrition.
Although some children with autism also have gastrointestinal symptomsthere is a lack of published rigorous data to support the theory that children with autism have more or different gastrointestinal symptoms than usual;  studies report conflicting results, and the relationship between gastrointestinal problems and ASD is unclear.
However, they reported lower levels of closeness and intimacy than siblings of children with Down syndrome ; siblings of individuals with ASD have greater risk of negative well-being and poorer sibling relationships as adults. Typically, autism cannot be traced to a Mendelian single-gene mutation or to a single chromosome abnormalityand none of the genetic syndromes associated with ASDs have been shown to selectively cause ASD.
Some such as the MMR vaccine have been completely disproven. This has led to unsupported theories blaming vaccine "overload"a vaccine preservativeor the MMR vaccine for causing autism.
How autism occurs is not well understood. Its mechanism can be divided into two areas: It is not known whether early overgrowth occurs in all children with autism.
It seems to be most prominent in brain areas underlying the development of higher cognitive specialization. An excess of neurons that causes local overconnectivity in key brain regions.
Children with autism have been found by researchers to have inflammation of both the peripheral and central immune systems as indicated by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and significant activation of microglia.
The MNS operates when an animal performs an action or observes another animal perform the same action. In people with autism the two networks are not negatively correlated in time, suggesting an imbalance in toggling between the two networks, possibly reflecting a disturbance of self-referential thought.
Hypo-connectivity seems to dominate, especially for interhemispheric and cortico-cortical functional connectivity. The first category focuses on deficits in social cognition.Attention deficit disorders have a variety of causes including a language delay, a stroke or the psychiatric condition.
|Almost everyone has some symptoms similar to ADHD at some point in their lives.|
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|Bipolar disorder - Wikipedia||Self-esteem[ edit ] In some cases, children who enjoy learning may develop a sense of fear when faced with structured or planned work, especially long or group-based assignments that require extended focus, even if they thoroughly understand the topic.|
|Florance Do you think you have an Attention Deficit Disorder? Did you know that there are different types of Attention Deficit Disoders and that is because people can suffer from deficits in attention due to a variety of causes.|
However, there is another category of persons who suffer from attention disorders. In , the DSM-III changed the name of the condition from "hyperkinetic reaction of childhood" to "attention deficit disorder" (ADD).
That happened because research by Virginia Douglas had suggested that the attention deficits were more important than the . Explore information on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including signs and symptoms, treatment, current science, and clinical trials.
Therapists may also teach children social skills, such as how to wait their turn, share toys, ask for help, or respond to teasing.
A brochure on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity. Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
The elevated mood is significant and is known as mania or hypomania, depending on its severity, or whether symptoms of psychosis are present.
During mania, an individual behaves or . APD is often misunderstood because many of the behaviors noted above also can accompany other problems, like learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and even depression.
Causes. Often, the cause of a child's APD isn't known. E vidence suggests that head trauma, lead poisoning, and chronic ear infections could play a role. Sometimes, there can be multiple causes. An attention deficit problem is officially described as a disorder when it is developmentally inappropriate and the symptoms first appear before the age of 12 and significantly interfere with functioning in at least two settings including school, work, home, or social life.